Tichodroma 30 (2018)
Original papers

Short communications

Others Abstracts and full-texts


Monitoring populácie jariabka hôrneho (Tetrastes bonasia) pomocou akustickej identifikácie kohútov
Monitoring the population of Hazel Grouse (Tetrastes bonasia) using acoustic identification of cocks


Správa CHKO Horná Orava, Bernolákova 408, SK-029 01 Námestovo, Slovensko; e-mail: simon.kertys@sopsr.sk

Abstract. This research points to the possibility of identifying Hazel Grouse cocks (Tetrastes bonasia) on the basic
of the unique characteristics of their song. The method was used to monitor the grouse population in the northern
part of the Protected landscape area Horna Orava during the years 2015–2017. The Hazel Grouse cocks were
provoked to singing by imitation of the cock’s and hen’s voice using the lure whistle. The reacting individuals
were recorded by hand using dictaphone. Subsequent visual comparison of vocal graphic illustration enabled
us to identify 21 cocks from 269 songs in 149 recordings. Each recorded cock composed his song from 6 to 10
elements, whose number and specific arrangement formed together an individual acoustic signature that allows
the recognition of individual cocks. Thanks to this method, seven cocks could be monitored during each season
(spring–autumn) and even during the individual years of mapping process.

Key words: Tetrastes bonasia, song, recognition, individuality

Popis nových dialektov spevu strnádky lúčnej (Emberiza calandra) zo Slovenska
A description of the new dialects in Corn Bunting (Emberiza calandra) from Slovakia


Katedra zoológie, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Ilkovičova 6, Mlynská dolina,
SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovensko; e-mail: lucia.rubacova@uniba.sk, paulina.rajcakova@gmail.com

Abstract. Bird song is variable on several levels. In addition to invariable species-specific song traits, there may
be some spatial variability within a species, usually resulting in the development of dialect. Dialect may convey
relation to particular population. Several dialects of Corn Bunting (Emberiza calandra) have been described from
populations occupying Western Europe and Poland. The aim of this study was to describe dialects used by males
from three populations in Southwest Slovakia and to find out whether they belong to any of the already described
dialect groups. In breeding period 2015, spontaneous male songs were recorded at the locality Levice (n = 12),
Kuchyňa (n = 9) and Vrádište (n = 6). Qualitative analysis of final song phrases showed that males could not
be assigned to any dialect group described before. For this reason, a two new dialect patterns (S1 in Levice and
Vrádište, S2 in Kuchyňa) were described. These patterns were shared by all the recorded singing males at the
locality. According to the initial song phrase, eight different song types were found, two of which were used at
the first, two at the second and three at the third locality. One song type was present at all three localities. Most
males combined at maximum two different song types, one of which was sung most frequently. The songs from
different populations show no differences in any frequency traits. Correlation analysis confirmed that songs within
the population are more similar than songs among populations.

Key words: local dialect, bioacoustics, Emberiza calandra, Slovak populations, song variability

Početnosť a rozšírenie kuvika obyčajného (Athene noctua) v Rimavskej kotline (južné Slovensko)
The abundance and distribution of Little Owl (Athene noctua) in Rimavská kotlina Basin (S Slovakia)


Gemersko-malohontské múzeum, Nám. M. Tompu 5, SK-979 01 Rimavská Sobota, Slovensko; e-mail: monika.galffyova@gmail.com

Abstract. The abundance and distribution of Little Owl was monitored in Rimavská kotlina Basin (central Slovakia)
in the years 2015–2017 using visual observations, recording of spontaneous calls and playback of male territorial
calls. Altogether 172 sites in 102 municipalities were mapped. There were 45 pairs detected, 16 pairs in the valleys
of the rivers Rimava and Slaná, respectively, 8 in the valley of Blh, 2 pairs in the valley of Turiec and Valická valley,
and 1 pair in the valley of Sokolí potok. 57.8% of the pairs were detected in farmyards and agricultural buildings
and 42.2% were detected in residential buildings and churches. The total number of breeding pairs of Little Owls
in the area was estimated at 45–65 pairs, with the density of 0.55–0.79 pairs/10 km2 (1 pair/12.66–18.29 km2).
The Little Owl had been monitored on a part of the area of the Rimavská kotlina Basin also in 2011. Then, the
species was present at 19 sites of 49 checked. During this survey, there were 18 pairs detected at these sites. This
suggests that the population of the species in the area was at the time of the study quite stable.

Key words: abundance, distribution, Athene noctua, Rimavská kotlina Basin, Slovakia

Distribúcia a hustota výra skalného (Bubo bubo) v Nitrianskej pahorkatine a Hornonitrianskej kotline (západné Slovensko) v rokoch 2013 – 2017
Distribution and density of the Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) in the Nitrianska pahorkatina Hills and the Hornonitrianska kotlina Basin (W Slovakia) in 2013–2017

Ladislav ŠNÍRER, Stanislav HARVANČÍK & Andrej DÚBRAVSKÝ

Horská 1314/42, 95806 Partizánske, Slovensko; e-mail: snirer@pobox.sk
Štátna ochrana prírody SR, Správa Chránenej krajinnej oblasti Ponitrie, Samova 3, 949 01 Nitra, Slovensko
Strojárenská 198, 95801 Partizánske, Slovensko

Abstract: Breeding population of the Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is localized mainly in marginal parts and foothills of Tribeč Mts., Považský Inovec Mts. and Strážovské vrchy Mts. In 2013–2017 we checked 72 sites (in study area 1440 km2) and found 30 breeding pairs (i.e. density 2.1 pairs/ 100 km2. Altogether we recorded 81 breeding attempts, of them 57 successful and 118 chicks (11 nests with 1 chick, 32 with 2, 13 with 3 a 1 with 4 chicks). We analysed distribution and density of nests according to habitats (abandoned stone quarries, active stone quarries, rocky slopes, tree nests in forest, buildings). The abandoned stone pits was the best habitat (in the sense of chick number; 45 successful nests of 59 nests = 76.3%), when 91 chicks fledged (77.1% of all fledged chicks). Based on this study we can conclude that the population was stable within the study period.

Key words: breeding, owls, habitats, distribution, density, Ponitrie

Does breeding environment affect eggshell bacteria load and female antibacterial defence investment?
Ovplyvňuje hniezdne prostredie baktérie vaječnej škrupiny a investície samíc do antimikrobiálnej obrany?


Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 06 Bratislava, Slovakia; email: alzbeta.darolova@savba.sk
Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 21, SK-845 51 Bratislava,
Slovakia & Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Limbová 12, SK-833 03 Bratislava, Slovakia
Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, Department of Conservation Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstrasse 1a, A-1160 Vienna, Austria
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstrasse 1a, A-1160 Vienna, Austria

Abstract. Eggshell surface of birds constitutes a suitable environment for bacteria which may have an important
impact on the embryo. One important determinant for bacteria development is humidity. We predict bacterial loads
on eggshells to be higher in birds breeding in wet environments (e.g. marsh habitats) in comparison to species
breeding in other (dry) habitats, assuming that eggs of wetland birds are more likely faced a higher degree of
humidity due to increased evaporation and water contact. To minimize damage through bacteria female birds
are known to develop several defence strategies including allocation of antimicrobial substances into the eggs.
Here we aim to show whether habitat dependent differences in eggshell bacteria loads do exist, more specifically,
whether bird species breeding in wetland habitats have to cope with higher bacterial loads on their eggs and
whether maternal investment into egg immune defence may have evolved as a counterstrategy to protect embryos
from bacteria penetrating the egg shell. Our results reveal eggshell bacteria loads in wetlands to be a multiply
higher than in dry habitats. There is no obvious difference in parameters related to maternal egg immune defence
investment which seems to be even lower in wetland habitats. In this context alternative possibilities of factors
influencing studied parameters are discussed.

Key words: birds, bacteria, egg, nesting habitat, lysozyme, maternal investment

Sojky vytvárajú vnášaním dubov do pásov krovín nové habitaty pre lesné vtáky v poľnohospodárskej krajine
European jays create new habitats for forests birds in agricultural land by spreading oaks into shrub belts


Výskum ekologických procesov, Cesta armády 235/7, 962 63 Pliešovce; Slovensko; e-mail: spavlik235@gmail.com
Prekážka 725/13, 033 01 Liptovský Hrádok, Slovensko; e-mail: pavlik.krsiak@gmail.com
A. Hlinku 2337/6, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovensko; e-mail: matej.pavlikzv@gmail.com

Abstract. The European jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a very efficient acorn disperser, and most of the Quercus
seeds, especially at medium to large distances, are jay-dispersed. Jays disperse acorns effectively also into shrub
belts in agricultural land, and thus they create new habitats. Such new structures enable to some forest birds, that
do not nest within treeless shrub belts, to penetrate into shrub belts with oaks and to spread in open agricultural
land. We compared the species composition of breeding bird assemblages in three hazel-blackthorn shrub belts
with different proportion of oaks (belts B–D) with those in a shrub belt without trees (belt A) and at an oak forest
edge (belt E). From 21 bird species nesting in shrub belts A–D, eight ones were forest birds (Parus major, Sturnus
vulgaris, Jynx torquilla, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, G. glandarius, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita,
Streptopelia turtur) which did not nest in the shrub belt A without trees. Only one forest bird species (P. major)
nested in the shrub belt B with low proportion of oaks, and 6–8 ones in the shrub belts C and D with higher
proportion of oaks. On the other hand, up to 11 bird species nesting at the oak forest edge (belt E) did not nest in
the shrub belts with oaks in open agricultural land.

Key words: Garrulus glandarius, acorn dispersal, shrubs with oaks, breeding bird assemblages, agricultural

Početnosť zimujúcich vodných vtákov na severe Slovenska počas januárov 2014 – 2018
The number of wintering waterbirds in northern Slovakia in Januaries 2014–2018

Michal BALÁŽ, Dušan KARASKA, Matej REPEL

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta Katolíckej univerzity, Hrabovská cesta 1, 034 01 Ružomberok, Slovensko; e-mail: michal.balaz@ku.sk
Štátna ochrana prírody SR, Správa CHKO Horná Orava, Bernolákova 408, 029 01 Námestovo, Slovensko; e-mail: dusan.karaska@sopsr.sk
Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Námestie osloboditeľov 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; e-mail: repel@vtaky.sk

Abstract. The structure of wintering waterbird assemblages is highly affected by the temperature. Wintering birds are not able to find enough food during the cold winters and they have to migrate to areas with better conditions. During the Januaries 2014–2018 44 (yearly 23–34) water bird species were registered in three regions of Northern Slovakia. The overall number of wintering birds ranged from 9125 to 12,639. There was found the significant impact of the temperature on the number of diving ducks. Mainly the Common Merganser and the Common Goldeneye significantly increased their numbers in winters with lower temperature. The most prominent influence between temperature and the number of wintering birds was found in last two Januaries (2017 and 2018) which were significantly different in average temperature. January 2017 was about 8.5 °C colder than January 2018 and many wintering localities were frozen. Despite this fact the number of wintering birds in 2017 was higher than in 2018. However, the number of species has decreased in 2017. The most of the differences were caused by the changing numbers of diving ducks which had to leave traditional wintering sites in northern parts of Europe during cold winter of 2017.

Key words: abundance, dominance, Aythya fuligula, Mergus merganser, Bucephala clangula

Posledné dokumentované hniezdenie ležiaka úhorového (Burhinus oedicnemus) na Slovensku
The last documented breeding of Eurasian Stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) in Slovakia

Jozef CHAVKO & Michal NOGA

Ochrana dravcov na Slovensku, Trhová 54, SK-841 01 Bratislava, Slovensko; e-mail: chavko@dravce.sk
Ľubovníkova 34, SK-841 07 Bratislava, Slovensko; e-mail: saola.sk@gmail.com

Abstract. The last known breeding of Eurasian Stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) in Slovakia was documented
in 1995 (June 8–July 17). A pair bred in maize field near Most pri Bratislave-Studené (SW Slovakia, 48.12333
N, 17.29486 E).

Key words: Burhinus oedicnemus, breeding, Slovakia

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku za rok 2017
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2017

Michal JENČO & Matej REPEL

Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Krúžkovacia centrála, Námestie osloboditeľov 1,
SK-071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; e-mail: kruzkysk@gmail.com

Abstract. In 2017, 50 ringers ringed altogether 56,251, of them 5,439 were nestlings. That number was 5.51%
lower compare to 2016. The ringed birds belonged to 148 species. The most numerous ringed species were Barn
Swallow (Hirundo rustica, 7,317 ind.), Great Tit (Parus major, 6,524 individuals), Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla,
3,988 ind.), Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus 3,558 ind.), Common chiffcaff (Phylloscopus collybita 2,509 ind.) The
colour ringed schemes in Slovakia are given. Alltogether 716 abroad recoveries were registered, out of them were
208 individuals re-trapped in Slovakia and ringed abroad, 508 idividuals ringed in Slovakia re-trapped abroad.

Key words: bird ringing, recoveries, colour ringing schemes

18. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 18th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Richard KVETKO & FK SOS/BirdLife Sl ovensko

SNP 14, 903 01 Senec, Slovensko; e-mail: richard.kvetko@centrum.sk

Abstract. In 2017, the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia reviewed 82
records, of which 67 were accepted in the category A, four in category C, two in category D, two in category E.
Furthermore four breeding records were accepted and one record is awaiting decision. Two records were rejected.
First record of Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) and Orange-flanked Bush-robin (Tarsiger cyanurus), first
breeding record of Grey-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava ssp. thunbergi), one record of Pink-footed Goose (Anser
brachyrhynchus), four records of Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), one record of Booted Eagle
(Hieraaetus pennatus), two records of Collared Pratincole (Glareola praticola), one record of Great Black-backed
Gull (Larus marinus), two records of Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) and one record of Yellow-browed
Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) were the most interesting records in 2017. Rarities Committee accepted also
some other valuable observations from the years 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017. For example one record of Black
Swann (Cygnus atratus), one record of Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), ten records of Barnacle Goose (Branta
leucopsis), seven records of Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis), five records of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen
aegyptiaca), two records of Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), three breeding records of Common Merganser
(Mergus merganser), three records of Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus), one record of Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),
one record of Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), ten records of Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), one record of
Greater Spotted Eagle (Clanga clanga), one record of Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), one record of
Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus), one record of Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), several records
of European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), one record of Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus graellsii/intermedius),
two records of European Roller (Coracias garrulus), one record of Citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola), one record
of Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) and one record of Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus).

Key words: birds, rarities committee, rarities report, Slovakia

Rác P. (ed.): Ornithological observations

Chronicle – In memory of Oldřich Suchánek

Chronicle – In memory of Marian Krchniak

© SOS/BirdLife Slovakia (2009–2013)