Tichodroma 24 (2012)

Original papers

Short communications

Nepůvodní druhy vodních ptáků zimující v České a Slovenské republice
Non-native waterbirds wintering in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia

Petr Musil, Zuzana Musilová, Jozef Ridzoň, Katarína Slabeyová  & Veronika Hodková

Katedra ekologie, Fakulta životního prostředí, Česká zemědělská universita, Kamýcká 1176,  Praha 6 – Suchdol CZ-165 21, Česká republika; p.musil@post.cz, iwccz@post.cz; Katedra zoologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Universita Karlova, Viničná 7, Praha 2, CZ- 128 44, Česká republika; veronika.hodkova@gmail.com, ridzon@vtaky.sk; Katedra ekologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Universita Karlova, Viničná 7, Praha 2, CZ- 128 44, Česká republika; katarina.slabeyova@gmail.com; SOS/Birdlife Slovensko, SOS/BirdLife Slovensko, Mlynské nivy 41, 82109 Bratislava, Slovensko

Abstract. Biological invasions belong to the most focused current issues in ecology. Investigation of dispersion of non-native species and of their possible interactions with native species seems to be very important. The numbers of wintering non-native waterbird species were analyzed using data from January Mid-winter International Waterbird Census carried out in Czechia and in Slovakia. The TRIM software was used to calculate the trends in numbers of individuals and in numbers of species. The additive ratio of changes (i.e. the change in indices from one year to the next) was the value used to express the population trends over the study period. The TRIM classification of the species trends was used in the following categories: strong increase (> 5% per year), moderate increase (< 5% per year) or uncertain trend with large values of confidence interval. Moreover, time totals of non-native waterbirds were assessed to calculate the wintering numbers in the case of complete coverage of IWC sites. In total, there were 14 non-native waterbird species in Czechia and five in Slovakia. Anserini and Cairini were represented by four species. The numbers of birds of almost all non-native waterbird species as well as the number of non-native species were significantly higher in Czechia than in Slovakia. Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) was the only exception with more records in Slovakia than in the Czech Republic. Therefore, analysis of long-term trends of non-native waterbirds was restricted only on the data from the Czech Republic. The numbers of individuals and species of non-native waterbirds increased in Czechia, especially in Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) and Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata). Moreover, the numbers of non-native waterbird species as well as the numbers of individual birds were found increasing especially in long data series (1966–2011). In short-term data sets (i.e 2003–2011), only the total numbers of individuals of non-native waterbirds were increasing.

Keywords: waterbirds, wintering, monitoring, temporal trends

Reakcia samcov európskeho poddruhu dudka chochlatého (Upupa epops epops) na nahrávku spevu vlastného a cudzieho poddruhu (U. e. marginata)
The response of males belonging to the European subspecies of Hoopoe to the playback of song of their own and foreign subspecies (U. e. marginata)

Lucia TURČOKOVÁ, Ľudovít KOCIAN, Alexander KÜRTHY & Csaba BALÁZS

Ornitologická stanice muzea Komenského, Bezručova 10, Přerov 750 02; turcokova@prerovmuzeum.cz; Katedra zoológie, Prírodovedecká fakulta univerzity Komenského, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava 4; Bilíkova 20, 841 01 Bratislava; Správa CHKO Cerová vrchovina, Železničná ul. 31, 979 01 Rimavská Sobota 

Abstract. Populations of the same species occupying different habitats can modify the acoustic parameters of their song to increase the effectiveness of signal transmission. The changed song features may cause situations in which individuals of one population are not able to recognize individuals belonging to the other population. Weaker recognition ability of individuals can play the key role in the establishment of the reproduction barrier between populations of the same species and leads to the separation of the new species. For the study of song divergence and recognition ability we choose the Hoopoe (Upupa epops) subspecies complex, which consists of 10 subspecies occupying a large area from Eurasia to Africa. All subspecies have a very similar acoustic performance except one subspecies from Madagascar (U. e. marginata). We carried out a playback experiment in which we focused on the recognition ability of the European subspecies (U. e. epops) of the Hoopoe. We tested males to two types of playbacks – one was the song of their own subspecies and the other was the song of the Madagascar subspecies. Of 24 experimental male subjects, 20 males responded to the playback of their own subspecies by a song. None of the experimental males responded to the other subspecies song. Our results suggest about the speciation process between the two Hoopoe subspecies.

Key words: acoustic divergence, Hoopoe, recognition, subspecies, speciation

Biológia hniezdenia muchárika bielokrkého (Ficedula albicollis) v troch odlišných regiónoch Slovenska
Breeding biology of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) in three different regions of Slovakia

Michal Baláž, Roman Slobodník & Vladimír Slobodník

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta KU, Ružomberok; michal.balaz@ku.sk; Katedra ekológie a environmentalistiky, Fakulta prírodných vied UKF, Nitra; roman.slobodnik@ukf.sk; Krasku 8/5, Prievidza; vladimir.slobodnik@gmail.com

Abstract. Breeding biology of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) was studied within several populations breeding in Slovakia in three regions with different climate and altitude. We analyzed more than 500 nests in the years 2001–2012, and we found differences in some aspects of breeding biology caused most probably by different climate characteristics associated witch altitude of the studied sites. Flycatchers started to lay eggs earlier in the lower elevated sites (the earliest first egg days for Horná Nitra, the Kremnické vrchy Mts. and Dolný Liptov were 17.4., 27.4. and 5.5., respectively) and the mean clutch size decreased with increasing altitude (6.1 eggs per nest in Horná Nitra, 5.8 in Kremnické vrchy Mts. and 5.4 in Dolný Liptov). Moreover, the breeding success was higher in lower situated Horná Nitra (69.1%) than in the Kremnické vrchy Mts. at higher altitude (57.7%). Differences in egg mass between the higher and lower elevated sites were not found.

Key words: flycatcher, breeding success, ecology, altitude, Central Europe

Potrava sovy obyčajnej (Strix aluco) v urbánnom a lesnom prostredí
Diet of the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) in urban and forest environment

Miroslav POLÁČEK, Michal BALÁŽ & Ján OBUCH

Ústav zoológie SAV, Bratislava, Slovensko; f.subbuteo@gmail.com; Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, Vetmeduni, Viedeň, Rakúsko; Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta KU, Ružomberok, Slovensko; michal.balaz@ku.sk; Botanická záhrada UK, Blatnica, Slovensko; obuch@rec.uniba.sk

Abstract. The diet of the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) was studied in the Banská Bystrica town and in forests of the Kremnické vrchy Mts. The species Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis and Turdus pilaris were the dominant prey species in both sites (N = 1091 prey items). The diet in Banská Bystrica was composed of several synanthropic small mammal species (Crocidura suaveolens, Rattus norvegicus), Microtus arvalis, one bat species (Nyctalus noctula) and a higher than expected proportion of birds (mainly Turdus merula, T. pilaris, Parus major, Carduelis carduelis and C. chloris). Mainly forest-dwelling small mammal species (Sorex araneus, Muscardinus avellanarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Glis glis and Microtus subterraneus) were characteristic prey items in the Kremnické vrchy Mts. The diversity index values and the number of species were higher in the urban than in the forest environment.

Key words: food, foraging ecology, owls, mammals, birds, habitats

Urbanizácia holuba hrivnáka (Columba palumbus): príklad industriálnej zóny Atómových elektrární Jaslovské Bohunice (západné Slovensko)
Urbanization of the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus): an example of the industrial zone of the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovské Bohunice (W Slovakia)

Dušan Briedik & Ivan Šipkovský

16. apríla 360/16, Vrbové, Slovensko; columbaaves@gmail.com; 2919 33 Trakovice 58, Slovensko; ivan.sipkovsky@centrum.sk

Abstract. Wood Pigeons were observed around the nuclear power plant in Jaslovské Bohunice since 1987, when the first two pairs were nesting in the trees. Since then, the population has grown to the current level of 80 pairs. In 1991, one pair was nesting on an iron construction. The ratio of nests laid in trees and on the constructions was assessed 3:7 recently. The population density of 0.67 pairs/ha is one of the highest values recorded in Slovakia.

Key words: Wood Pigeon, species expansion, breeding, density, habitat

Vplyv veku porastu na hniezdne zoskupenie vtákov mladých dubových lesov
Influence of stand age on the breeding bird assemblages of young oak forests

Peter LEŠO

Katedra ochrany lesa a poľovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta TU vo Zvolene, Masarykova 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; leso@tuzvo.sk

Abstract. The aim of this study was to record and explain changes in the qualitative-quantitative structure of breeding bird assemblages in a forest stand after 15 years of the stand development. The bird census was performed on a 9.7 ha study plot representing young oak commercial forest two times: firstly at the stand age of 17 years (thicket stage) and, repeatedly, at the stand age of 32 years (small pole stage). After 15 years, the number of the breeding species showed a slight increase (from 20 to 23 species), whereas the overall bird density had decreased dramatically from 60.6 to 31.3 pairs/10 ha. The species similarity measured by Sörensen index was 64%, the density similarity only 45%. Comparing the structure of birds within the given study plot with the results published for other plots representing young oak forests, the forest age has been proved to be the more important factor than the character of the plot. Fringilla coelebs, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major may be considered as differential species occurring only in the small pole stage and lacking in the thicket stage. On the contrary, some species recorded in the thicket stage may be considered, based on their presence (Emberiza citrinella, Lanius collurio, Phylloscopus trochilus, Prunella modularis and Sylvia curruca), and/or high density (Erithacus rubecula, Phylloscopus collybita and Sylvia atricapilla) as typical for this stage.

Key words: breeding birds, forest succession, ecology, Central Europe

Vtáctvo agrocenóz chráneného vtáčieho územia Špačinsko-nižnianske polia (západné Slovensko)
Birds of agrocoenoses of the Special Protected Area Špačinsko-nižnianske polia fields (W Slovakia)


ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Malé Karpaty, Štúrova 115, 900 01 Modra, Slovensko; peter.puchala@sopsr.sk

Abstract. Presented are birds’ monitoring results in the Special Protection Area Špačinsko-nižnianske polia fields in agricultural landscape of the northern part of the Trnavská pahorkatina, hills. The study was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 using point census method. Totally, 82 species were found (41 of them nidificants). The most abundant species were Sturnus vulgaris (48,3%), Passer montanus (12,0%), Carduelis carduelis (5,9%), Alauda arvensis (4,8%) and Hirundo rustica (3,0%). The most frequent were Passer montanus (100%), Pica pica, Carduelis carduelis, Buteo buteo (91,3%), Falco tinnunculus and Fringilla coelebs (78,3%). The higher species diversity was found at points with heterogenous habitats such as small field forest, greenery lines and alleys. The highest number of species was observed in May, the highest number of individual birds in July and August. There were found several bird species with higher conservation importance, such as Falco cherrug, Aquilla heliaca, Circus pygargus and Lanius minor. Occurence of these species is discussed in the paper.

Key words: birds, abundance, Natura 2000, SPA, monitoring, agrocoenoses

Prírodná rezervácia Kiarovský močiar (južné Slovensko) – výsledky odchytov vtáctva metodikou CES v rokoch 2010 – 2012
The Nature Reserve Kiarovský močiar marsh (S Slovakia) – results of bird trapping by using CES scheme in 2010–2012


Tolstého 17, 984 03 Lučenec, Slovensko; chocatabras@gmail.com; Školská 211, 985 31 Mučín, Slovensko; m.mojzis76@gmail.com

Abstract. Bird monitoring, using CES scheme methodology, was carried out on the Kiarovský močiar wetland in Southern Slovakia, during three breeding periods (2010–2012). Bird trapping in particular years was influenced by weather. This was reflected in the bird species number and abundance. Altogether 32 bird species and 826 individuals (417 adults/50.5% and 409 juveniles/49.5%) were caught. Of them 35 individuals of 11 species were retrapped (4.24% of all caught individuals), only three birds from other countries. The dominant species were there Acrocephalus scirpaceus (the most abundant with 18.8% of all caught individuals), Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Sylvia atricapilla, Passer montanus, Locustella luscinioides and Cyanistes caeruleus (altogether 68.3% of all caught birds). Inter-annual changes in the abundance of adults and juveniles of dominant passerines are commented.

Key words: breeding birds, bird ringing, wetlands, abundance, CES scheme

Výsledky monitoringu vtáctva metódou CES na lokalite Bôrik v rokoch 2008, 2010 – 2012 (západné Slovensko)
Bird monitoring results according to CES scheme at the locality Bôrik in years 2008, 2010–2012 (W Slovakia)


Katedra ekológie a environmentalistiky, Fakulta prírodných vied UKF, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovensko; roman.slobodnik@ukf.sk

Abstract. A breeding bird assemblage was monitored near the Prievidza town in the contact zone between the Strážovské vrchy Mts and the Nitra basin. The monitoring was performed in 2008 and in 2010–2012, with using the Constant Effort Sites (CES) scheme methodology. The mist-nets were 100 m long, most of them were installed in riparian vegetation along a periodic stream. In 2008, altogether 231 individuals (130 adults and 101 juveniles) of 32 species were caught during nine mist-nettings. In 2010, altogether 217 individuals of 28 species were caught; of them 158 were adults and 59 juveniles. In 2011, altogether 242 individuals of 23 species were caught; of them 109 were adults and 133 juveniles. In 2012, altogether 278 individuals of 32 species were caught; of them 180 were adults and 98 juveniles. The species Sylvia atricapilla, Parus major, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos were dominant. The juveniles represented 43.7% of all caught individuals in 2008, 27.2% in 2010, 55% in 2011 and 35.2% in 2012.

Key words: bird ringing, monitoring, CES scheme, Bôrik

Avifauna vodnej nádrže Sĺňava pri Piešťanoch v rokoch 1959 – 2012
Birds at the Sĺňava water reservoir near Piešťany (W Slovakia) in 1959–2012


Zavretý kút 42/16, 921 01 Piešťany, Slovensko; e-mail: kanuscak@gmail.com

Abstract. Altogether 243 bird species were found in the Sĺňava Protected Study Area in 1959–2012. Of them 190 (78.2%) were migrants, 50 (20.6%) were breeding species, 89 (36.6%) were wintering species, 39 (16.0%) were sedentary species and 16 (6.6%) occurred erratically. The overview of the species found and short comments on occurrence are given.

Key words: birds, faunistics, long-term research

Skorý výskyt kulíka vrchovského (Charadrius morinellus) vo Vysokých Tatrách
Early occurrence of the Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) in the High Tatras Mts

Miroslav SANIGA & Ivo ŠVEC

Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; saniga@savzv.sk; Môťovská 6, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovensko; ivo.svec@gmail.com

Abstract. Two specimens of Eurasian Dotterels (Charadrius morinellus) were found on August 2, 2012 in the High Tatras Mts. The birds (adult and subadult) were observed on the peak of the Ľadový štít (2627 m a.s.l.). This is only the third published observation of this bird species in the Slovak parts of the High Tatras Mts.

Key words: birds faunistics, phenology, migration

Hniezdenie mlynárky dlhochvostej (Aegithalos caudatus) v rybníku v poraste pálky
Nesting of Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus) in a cattail stand in a fishpond


Ústav zoológie Slovenskej akadémie vied, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovensko; alzbeta.darolova@savba.sk, jan.kristofik@savba.sk

Abstract. A nest of long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus) was found in the fishpond in a cattail tuft above the water level, 15 m from the bank in 2012.

Key words: unusual breeding, Long-tailed Tit, fishponds

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku v roku 2011
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2011


ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; vladimir.slobodnik@sopsr.sk; Katedra ekológie a environmentalistiky, Fakulta prírodných vied UKF, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovensko; roman.slobodnik@ukf.sk

Abstract. In 2011, 65 members of Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia ringed altogether 54,680 birds, of them 3967 were nestlings (7.2%). The most numerous ringed species were Sylvia atricapilla (5673 individuals), Erithacus rubecula (4937 ind.), Hirundo rustica (4730 ind.), Parus major (4477 ind.) and Carduelis spinus (2789 ind.). The ringed birds belonged to 171 species. The lists of ten most frequently ringed passerines and ten non-passerines are given. The most frequently ringed young are also discussed. The results of 15 individuals re-trapped in Slovakia and ringed abroad as well as 15 individuals ringed in Slovakia and re-trapped abroad are given.

Key words: bird ringing, re-traps, Slovakia, ornithology

12. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 12th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Richard KVETKO & Vladimír ŠRANK

SNP 14, 903 01 Senec, Slovensko; richard.kvetko@centrum.sk; Zoologická záhrada Bojnice, 972 01 Bojnice, Slovensko; vladimir.srank@gmail.com

Abstract. In 2011, the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia reviewed 27 records. All of them were accepted. No new species for the Slovak Republic were recorded in 2011. The highlights of 2011 are the records of Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus, 9th record of Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) and Grey phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius). Other noteworthy accepted records from the year 2011 are: breeding of Purple Heron in 2010 (Ardea purpurea), one sighting of Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus graellsii/intermedius) in 2011, three records of Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) in 2010 and 2011, Yellow-browed Warbler in 2007(Phylloscopus inornatus), Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) in 2011, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) in 2011, Brant Goose (Branta bernicla) in 2011, Rosy Starling (Pastor roseus) in 2011, Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) in 2011, 4th and 5th breeding record of Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) in 2010, Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca) in 2011, Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) in 2011, breeding record of Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) in 2011, breeding record of Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avocetta) in 2010, 2nd record of Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) in 2011, Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) in 2011, Red Knot (Calidris canutus) in 2010, hybrid Azure and European Blue Tit (Parus cyanus × Parus caeruleus) in 2011, Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) in 2011, and two breeding records of Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) in 2011.

Key words: rarities committee, rarities report, Slovakia

Early ornithological expeditions to Syrmia and Banat (18091855)
Rané ornitologické expedice do Syrmie a Banátu (1809 1855)


Department of Zoology, National Museum, Václavské náměstí 68, CZ-115 79 Praha 1, Czech Republic; e-mail: jiri_mlikovsky@nm.cz

Abstract. A report of early ornithological expeditions to Syrmia and Banat is presented. These lands currently belong to the southern Vojvodina, Serbia, but in the past, they were a less safe region at the border between the Habsburg Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. The first who collected birds in the territory of Syrmia and Banat was Johann Natterer, an Austrian collector, in 1809. In 1834, Johann Salomon Petényi assumed the position of a curator of zoological collections in the Hungarian National Museum, and his activities opened the territory Hungary to foreign ornithologists. Simultaneously, the situation in Syrmia and Banat turned to the better and became more suitable for ornithological visits. Ornithological expeditions visited Syrmia and Banat in 1835 (Naumann), 1838 (Landbeck), 1840 (von Loebenstein), 1852 (Frič) and 1853–1855 (Zelebor). A first ornithologist, Ettinger, settled in the region in the mid-1850s. Consequently, the expedition era of ornithological explorations of Syrmia and Banat took its end and the era of standard ornithological research was commenced.

Key words: ornithology, history, faunistics, Serbia, Romania

Ryšánek’s collection of birds from the High Tatras Mountains, Slovakia, from 1935–1938
Ryšánkova zbierka vtákov z Vysokých Tatier z rokov 1935–1938


Department of Zoology, National Museum, Václavské náměstí 68, CZ-115 79 Praha 1, Czech Republic; jiri_mlikovsky@nm.cz

Abstract. J. Ryšánek collected in 1935–1938 at Štrba, the High Tatras Mts, Slovakia, birds for the National Museum in Prague, Czechia. This collection, which includes 758 skins of 77 species, has not been published yet, although it represents a welcome addition to the knowledge of the avifauna of this part of the High Tatras Mts. The collected rarities include Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) and Red Knot (Calidris canutus).

Key words: ornithology, history, faunistics, Slovakia

O „chránených“ túlavých domácich mačkách a vtáctve
On ‘protected’ free-roaming domestic cats and birds


Ústav ekológie lesa Slovenskej akadémie vied, Ľ. Štúra 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; benjamin.jarcuska@gmail.com

Abstract. Free-roaming (outdoor pets and feral) domestic cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrates. Despite the well-known threats posed by outdoor domestic cats on birds and other wildlife, the management of these animals is a long-standing controversial issue due to conflicts between nature conservationists and free-roaming cat advocates. In Slovakia, lethal management of free-roaming domestic cats by hunters was permitted in the past. According to the current amendment of the Slovakian Hunting Act, shooting of free-roaming cats is not allowed any more. However, at the same time, no alternatives of the cat management have been offered or implemented. Here, I briefly review the impacts of free-roaming cats on birds. As there has been uncertainty over the extent of their adverse effects on bird populations yet, a precautionary principle regarding cat management is recommended to use. Therefore, I emphasize the questionable justification of the existing status quo and appeal for an action to solve the present issue of “protected” free-roaming domestic cats.

Key words: Felis catus, outdoor cats, predation, bird protection

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